P.V.R. Narasimha Rao, USA
Annual solar return charts based on Sun’s return every year to his exact natal position are popular in Vedic and western astrology. As Sun shows the soul and Moon shows the mind, Vedic astrology gives importance to both Sun and Moon. Soli-lunar calendar based on both Sun and Moon is used for celebrating birthdays. It uses soli-lunar months based on Moon’s phase (tithi) and soli-lunar years aligned to solar years and casts “Tithi Pravesha” charts (soli-lunar return charts).
Tithi Pravesha worked well for this author even with Lahiri ayanamsa. But divisional charts did not work consistently. The discovery of Pushya-paksha ayanamsa and refinement of the definitions of some divisional charts based on an independent interpretation of Parasara and experimentation, made divisional charts of Tithi Pravesha work more consistently. But there were still examples where it did not make compelling sense. In such corner cases, trying the same tithi in the previous or the next month explained things much better. Yet, there was no consistent definition that worked in all cases, though multiple definitions were tried.a
When this author applied to Tithi Ptavesha charts the solar year of the article “Re-defining Tajaka Varshaphal Charts”,Tithi Pravesha worked consistently in the corner cases found before. The new definition will be shared in this article with examples.
Before defining the soli-lunar calendar, let us define the solar calendar. A solar year is of 365.242 days (tropical) or 365.256 days (sidereal). Tropical solar year is the time period in which Sun traverses the tropical zodiac once. Sidereal solar year is the time period in which Sun traverses the sidereal zodiac once.
For casting Tajaka varshaphal chart every year, astrologers now-a-days use sidereal solar year, i.e. they find when Sun returns to his natal sidereal longitude. For defining soli-lunar years also, they use the same solar year as the reference for alignment. However, this is inconsistent with the teachings of Maharshi Parasara to Maitreya in “Vishnu Purana” chapter 2.8.
Maharshi Pararsara taught Maitreya that a solar year consists of 2 ayanas and that each ayana consists of 3 ritus (seasons).
This link to seasons clearly points to tropical zodiac. A solar year based on tropical zodiac (i.e. the time Sun takes to traverse exactly 360° around the tropical zodiac) is tied to seasons.
For example, when Sun enters tropical Aries, day and night are of equal length and it is spring. When Sun enters tropical Cancer, day is the longest and it is summer (in northern hemisphere). When Sun enters tropical Libra, day and night are of equal length and it is autumn. When Sun enters tropical Capricorn, day is the shortest and it is winter (in northern hemisphere).
If we take the sidereal zodiac, it is not tied to seasons. When Sun enters sidereal Aries every year, he will be in the vicinity of particular stars associated with sidereal Aries, but the season changes over the years!
Not stopping at that, Maharshi Parasara explicitly taught Maitreya that Uttarayana starts when Sun enters Capricorn and the day length is the smallest then. When Uttarayana ends, Sun leaves Gemini and enters Cancer and the day is is the longest then. That makes it obvious that Pararsara is referring to tropical signs here!
Sidereal vs Tropical Zodiac
As mentioned above, Maharshi Parasara clearly used tropical zodiac when defining solar years in “Vishnu Purana”. But, when teaching divisional charts in “Brihat Parasara Hora Sastram”, he taught how nakshatras are aligned to rasis and how navamsas map to quarters of naksatras. So he used sidereal zodiac there.
This author’s conclusion is that both tropical and sidereal zodiacs are needed:
- Sidereal zodiac: Used for all matters related to space, e. definition of rasi chart and divisional charts
- Tropical zodiac: Used for all matters related to time, i.e. definition of months, seasons, ayanas and years.
Soli-lunar Month & Days
Some people start a soli-lunar month at exact Sun-Moon conjunction (Amanta calendar). Some people start it at exact Sun-Moon samasaptaka (Suklanta calendar).
Lord Krishna taught in Srimad Bhagavatam that the next Satya yuga will start when Sun, Moon and Jupiter exactly conjoin Pushya nakshatra (i.e. yoga tara of Pushya nakshatra). If yuga cycle starts at Sun-Moon conjunction, then so must the sub-divisions of yuga cycle such as yugas, years and months! After all, if a day starts at 6 am, the first hour must start at 6 am, the second hour at 7 am and so on. You cannot have an hour starting at 9:30 am.
So we conclude that soli-lunar months start and end at exact Sun-Moon conjunction.
Soli-lunar day or tithi is defined as 1/30th of the period between 2 consecutive Sun-Moon conjunctions. It is the time in which the angle from Sun to Moon increases by 12° (i.e. 360°/30).
We define soli-lunar years by clubbing either 12 or 13 soli-lunar months and aligning them with solar years defined above.
For this purpose, we define 12 distinct soli-lunar months, each linked to the tropical zodiacal sign in which Sun and Moon conjoin when the month starts. A soli-lunar year contains 12 months corresponding to the 12 zodiacal signs. Month corresponding to one zodiacal sign may be repeated (i.e. Sun and Moon may conjoin in the same sign in 2 consecutive months). Such repetition comes twice every 5 years on average. For convenience, we will name the months based on the nakshatras associated with the sidereal counterparts of tropical signs.
For example, Chaitra month starts when Sun and Moon conjoin in tropical Pisces. The Chaitra month in traditional definition (based on sidereal Pisces) comes in spirng now, but will come in summer (or even winter) after a few thousand years. With the above definition, it will come in spring always.
Tithi Pravesha Chart Definition
Annual Tithi Pravesha (TP) chart is cast every year when Moon is exactly at the same angle from Sun as at birth, in the same soli-lunar month as at birth.
This is what the final clause above means: The tropical sign occupied by Sun in the latest Sun-Moon conjunction chart is the same as the tropical sign occupied by Sun in the latest Sun-Moon conjunction chart before birth.
An annual TP chart is judged just like the natal chart, except that it is effective for just one year. All divisional charts can be used.
In addition, the lord of the hora at the time of the TP chart is given special importance. He is the lord of the year. Houses occupied and owned by him in various divisional charts get particular importance during the year.
One can use nakshatra dasas compressed to a year. The method of picking the best nakshatra dasa in a chart, as given in the writeup “Unified Nakshatra Dasa Approach”. This writeup uses some examples of nakshatra dasas in annual TP charts, but one should refer to the above article for more examples and also a clear explanation of how to pick the best dasa in a chart.
Picking the best nakshatra dasa in a divisional chart may require a more accurate birthtime than required for just knowing the lagna in a divisional chart. One can use it when confident of the birthtime.
Rasi Chart vs Divisional Charts: Rasi chart is like a combination of all floormaps of all floors in a multi-storey building, while divisional charts are like different floors. If the northeast corner has something in the combined floormap, it may be in any floor. Similarly, if the 5th house is strong in rasi chart, it may show childbirth, promotion in job, academic distinction, successful mantra sadhana etc and we can check the 5th house in D-7, D-10, D-24, D-20 etc (respectively) for further insights. Indications in rasi chart may be weak, but have to be strong in the corresponding divisional chart.
You can download “Jagannatha Hora”. In addition, you will need to set some divisional chart calculation options to follow this write-up. Some divisional charts are computed incorrectly by people now-a-days.
In the main menu of “Jagannatha Hora” software (version 7.67 or higher), you can select “Preferences”, “Related to Calculations” and “Set Calculation Options as recommended by author”, to set divisional chart calculations as used in this write-up.
We will first see a handful of examples that contrast:
(a) the old definition (i.e. soli-lunar months defined based on sidereal signs)
(b) the new definition given in this writeup (i.e. soli-lunar months defined based on tropical signs)
Example 1: Marriage
Birthdata: 1971 September 12, 8:25 am (IST), Guntur, India (80e27, 16n18)
Event: She got married in 1993 August.
At 8:25 am on 1971 September 12, angle from Sun to Moon was 0Ge48 – 26Le23 = 274° 26´ (in other words, 13.13% of Krishna Ashtami tithi was left).
The latest Sun-Moon conjunction before that day was on 1971 August 21 at 4:24:02 am. Sun at that time was at 4Le56 in sidereal zodiac and at 27Le15 in tropical zodiac. So either way, it is Leo (Bhadrapada month).
At 9:47:45 am on 1992 September 20, angle from Sun to Moon was 9Ge16 – 4Vi50 = 274° 26´ (in other words, 13.13% of Krishna Ashtami tithi was left). Notice that this angle matches that at birth.
The latest Sun-Moon conjunction before that day was on 1992 August 28 at 8:12:25 am. Sun at that time was at 12Le26 in sidereal zodiac and at 5Vi03 in tropical zodiac. Using sidereal zodiac, it is Leo (Bhadrapada month), i.e. just as at birth. So, using the traditional definition of soli-lunar months, annual TP chart is cast on 1992 September 20 at 9:47:45 am.
However, using the definition in this writeup based on tropical signs, this is a different month (Virgo)! So let us take the previous month.
At 12:14:02 am on 1992 August 22, angle from Sun to Moon was 10Ta45 – 6Le19 = 274° 26´ (in other words, 13.13% of Krishna Ashtami tithi was left). Notice that this angle matches that at birth.
The latest Sun-Moon conjunction before that day was on 1992 July 30 at 1:05:43 am. Sun at that time was at 14Cn17 in sidereal zodiac and at 6Le54 in tropical zodiac. Using tropical zodiac, it is Leo (Bhadrapada month), i.e. just as at birth. So, using the new definition of soli-lunar months given in this writeup, annual TP chart is cast on 1992 August 22 at 12:14:02 am.
Marriage is seen from navamsa (D-9) chart. Let us compare D-9 of the 2 dates & times we found above.
D-9 chart using the old definition (sidereal sign based soli-lunar months) is shown at the top (next page). Lagna lord and 7th lord are debilitated. The 7th lord is in the 8th house with the 6th lord. This D-9 chart is not showing any compelling indications of marriage during the year.
D-9 chart using the new definition (tropical sign based soli-lunar months) is shown at the bottom (next page). Lagna lord and 7th lord are together in the 7th house. This raja yoga is very favorable for getting married in the year.
Moreover, the 7th lord in 7th (Jupiter) is also the ruler of the year (hora lord). This D-9 chart has far more compelling indications of marriage during the year.
Example 2: Job loss (Layoff)
Birthdata: 1970 April 4, 5:50:40 pm (IST), Machilipatnam, India (81e08, 16n10)
Event: He lost his job on 2002 August 12 when a start-up company went into hibernation mode and laid off most employees.
Dasamsa (D-10) chart shows career. The D-10 charts using the 2 definitions are shown below.
In the top chart, lagna lord Mars in 10th and 10th lord Sun in lagna make the chart very strong, despite the exchange between 5th and 12th lords. In the bottom chart, 8th lord Jupiter in 7th (maraka – a death like situation in career) compellingly depicts job loss.
Example 3: Going Abroad
Birthdata: 1972 May 14, 8:13:30 am (IST), Idar, India (73e00, 23n50)
Event: He left his motherland India in 2007 April for work.
Chaturthamsa (D-4) chart shows residence. The D-4 charts using the 2 definitions are shown below.