शनैः शनैर्गतस्तत्र लोमशं द्रुहिणात्मजं। ददृशे वेदसदृशं सौमतेयो ननाम ह॥१॥
Shiva said: The vipra reached that ashrama slowly. Lomasha, the son of Vishnu, resembling the Vedas (that is looked like the incarnation of knowledge), appeared there and Saumateya bowed down to him.
तदा मुनिर्जगादेदं वचनं द्विजमुत्तमं। त्वं कोऽसि कस्य पुत्रोऽसि कुत्र यास्यसि भो द्विज॥२॥
आगतोऽसि किमर्थं वै तन्मे ब्रूहि सुविस्तरात्।
Then the sage spoke the following words to the best of the dwijas, “O Dwija! Who are you? Whose son are you? Where are you going? For what reason have you come here? Tell me this in detail.”
इति वाक्यं समाकर्ण्य मुनेश्चेदं द्विजोऽब्रवीत्॥३॥
Hearing these words of the sage the dwija said the following.
भृगुवंशेऽतिविख्यातः सुमतिर्ब्राह्मणोत्तमः। पुत्रोऽहं तस्य धर्मज्ञ देशेंऽगे प्रवसाम्यहं॥४॥
वंगदेशे प्रजानाथः कश्चित्कीर्तिध्वजाभिधः। तद्गृहे मानभंगोऽभूज्ज्योतिषार्थं हि मे मुने॥५॥
यत्सारं ज्योतिषं तत्त्वं तदर्थमहमागतः। कृपां कुरु महाभाग दीनोऽहं शरणं मम॥६॥
Vipra said: “In the lineage of Bhrigu there was a highly acclaimed brahmin by the name of Sumati. O knower of dharma! I am his son. I live in Anga. There is a king of Vanga by the name of Kirtidhwaja. O sage! My pride was shattered in his house for the sake of Jyotisha. I have come here to learn the essence of the principles of Jyotisha. O illustrious one! Have mercy on me! I am distressed. Grant me refuge.”
द्विजस्य वचनं श्रुत्वा महाकारुणिको मुनिः। उवाच वचनं रम्यं द्विजसंतोषकारकं॥७॥
Hearing the words of the dwija, the highly compassionate sage spoke words which were pleasant and brought solace to the dwija.
पाठयिष्यामि भो ब्रह्मन्त्यज चिंतां सुदुस्तरां। ब्राह्मणैः सर्वथा पूज्यं वेदनेत्रं च ज्योतिषं॥८॥
माघमासे सिते पक्षे पंचम्यां पौष्णतारके। गुरुवासरसंयुक्ते मुहूर्तं चास्ति सुव्रत॥९॥
मासमेकं प्रतीक्षस्व ततो वै पाठयाम्यहं।
The sage said: “O Brahmin! I shall teach you. Forsake your invincible worry. Jyotisha, the eyes of the Vedas, is worshippable in every way by the brahmins. O the one with good vows! There is an auspicious muhurata in the month of Magha, on Thursady, the fifth day of the bright fortnight when Moon is in the Pushya constellation. Wait for one month. Then I shall definitely teach you.”
इति मुनिवचः श्रुत्वा धन्यं मत्वा तथात्मना॥१०॥
परमं हर्षमापेदे नत्वाथ शिरसा मुनिं। ततोत्थितो द्विजवरो रमयामास तत्र वै॥११॥
गुरुसेवारतो नित्यं तदाज्ञा निरतः सदा। भक्षयन्फलमूलानि निवासस्तत्र चाकरोत्॥१२॥
Shiva said: Hearing these words of the sage, the dwija became elated and considered himself blessed. Then that best of dwijas bowed his head down to the sage, got up and spent his time there itself. He constantly dedicated himself to the service of his teacher and followed his orders. Eating fruits and roots, he stayed there itself.
एवं मासगते काले सुजन्मा सर्वधर्मवित्। मुहूर्ते चैव संप्राप्ते संपूज्य विधिवन्मुनीन्॥१३॥
इति मंत्रं समुच्चार्य गुरुं नत्वा पुनः पुनः। प्रहृष्टमानसो भूत्वा त्यक्तलोभसुखादयः॥१४॥
अज्ञानध्वांतविध्वंसभास्करः प्रणतार्तिहृत्। प्रसीद मुनिशार्दूल करुणायुग्दृगेक्षण॥१५॥
नमस्तस्मै भगवते बोधरूपाय सर्वदा। परमानंदकंदाय गुरवेऽज्ञानध्वंसिने॥१६॥
When one month had passed in this way and the muhurata had arrived, Sujanma, the knower of all dharmas, having rejected greed, worldly comfort etc with a pleased mind bowed down to his guru again and again and worshipped him as per injunctions with the following mantra – “O the Sun who destroys the darkness of ignorance! O the one who takes away the sorrow of ones who bow down to him! O the lion amongst sages! O the one whose eyes are filled with compassion! Be pleased. Salutations always to him who is the Lord, who is of the nature of consciousness, who is the abode of supreme happiness, who is the teacher, who destroys the darkness of ignorance.”
इत्युक्तः स सुसंहृष्टो मुनिस्तत्त्वविदां वरः। अथोपादिश्यत् शास्त्राणां सारं यज्ज्योतिषं शुभं॥१७॥
His having spoken thus, the pleased sage, the best amongst the knower of tattvas, taught the auspicious Jyotisha which is the essence of the shastras.
शुक्लांबरधरं विष्णुं शुक्लांबरधरां गिरं। प्रणम्य पांचजन्यं च वीणां याभ्यामिदं ततं॥१८॥
सूर्यं नत्वा ग्रहपतिं जगदुत्पत्तिकारणं। वक्ष्यामि वेदनयनं यथा ब्रह्ममुखाच्छ्रुतं॥१९॥
After saluting Vishnu wearing white robes, Saraswati wearing white robes, after saluting Panchajanya (the conch of Vishnu) and the lute (of Saraswati) – the two by which this entire universe is pervaded, after bowing down to the Sun, the lord of the planets and the cause of the origin of the world, I shall speak (Jyotisha) the eye of the Vedas, as heard from the mouth of Brahma.
Chandrashekhars Comments: Veena is lute, it is also one of the words that indicates seven planets and here that must be the meaning.
शांताय गुरुभक्ताय ऋजवे चिरवासिने। आस्तिकाय प्रदातव्यं ततः श्रेयो ह्यवाप्स्यति॥२०॥
न देयं परशिष्याय नास्तिकाय शठाय च। दत्ते प्रतिदिनं दुःखं जायते नात्र संशयः॥२१॥
The knowledge of Jyotisha should be given to the one who is peaceful, devoted to his teacher, straightforward, who shall stay for long (to acquire the entire knowledge) and who believes in God. Then one shall certainly obtain merit. It should not be given to the student of another teacher, to the one who is an atheist and to the one who is crooked. If this knowledge is given to such a disciple then sorrows appear day after day – there is no doubt about this.
एकोऽव्यक्तात्मको विष्णुरनादिः प्रभुरीश्वरः। शुद्धः समो जगत्स्वामी निर्गुणः त्रिगुणान्वितः॥२२॥
संसारकारणः श्रीमान्नमितात्मा (च) प्रतापवान्। एकांशेन जगत्सर्वं सृजत्यवति लीयते॥२३॥
Vishnu is the non-dual, unmanifested, beginningless, powerful, lordly, pure, constant, lord of the world, devoid of the gunas (in the unmanifested form), comprised of the three gunas (in the manifested form), the cause of the world, glorious, unlimited in form and endowed with affluence. Through merely a part of his power he creates, sustains and destroys the world.
त्रिपादं तस्य देवस्य ह्यमृतं तत्त्वदर्शिनः। विदेति(विदन्ति?) तत्प्रमाणं च सप्रधानं तथैकपात्॥२४॥
Three-quarters of that God are indestructible. The knowers of the tattvas know it along with the remaining quarter which is called Pradhaana (or Prakriti).
Commentary: One may want to compare what is being said in these verses with the following two verses from the celebrated Purusha Sukta of the Rig Veda:
एतावानस्य महिमातो ज्यायांश्च पूरुषः। पादोऽस्य विश्वा भूतानि त्रिपादस्यामृतं दिवि॥३॥
त्रिपादूर्ध्व उदैत्पुरुषःपादोऽस्येहाभवत्पुनः। ततो विष्वङ्व्याक्रामत्साशनानशने अभि॥४॥
“This much is only the greatness of the Purusha. The Purusha himself is much greater than it. One quarter of the Purusha is the entire group of living beings. The remaining three quarters are imperishable and exist above in the sky. The Purusha ascended above with three quarters of its part. One quarter of its part manifested here in the tangible world. From this one quarter the entire universe, along with conscious and unconscious entities, came into existence.”
The reference in the sukta is to the beginning of creation when the Purusha divided itself into two parts. From one-fourth part the visible and perishable world of living and non-living beings came into existence while the remaining imperishable part ascended above. These are the two parts of Vishnu being spoken of in this shloka. The shloka says that the enlightened beings possess full knowledge of both these parts.
व्यक्ताव्यक्तात्मको विष्णुर्वासुदेवेति गीयते। यदव्यक्तात्मको विष्णुर्द्वयशक्तिसमन्वितः॥२५॥
Vishnu, in the form which is manifest as well as unmanifest, is known as Vasudeva. The unmanifested Vishnu is endowed with two kinds of energies while the manifested Vishnu is endowed with three kinds of energies and is infinitely powerful.
सत्त्वप्रधाना श्रीः शक्तिर्भूशक्तिश्च रजो गुणा॥२६॥
या शक्तिस्तृतीया प्रोक्ता नीलाख्या तमरूपिणी।
The energy named Shri is dominated by Sattva, the energy names Bhoo is dominated by Rajas and the third energy called Nila is dominated by Tamas.
वासुदेवश्चतुर्द्धाभूच्छ्रीशक्त्या प्रेरितो यदा॥२७॥
संकर्षणश्च प्रद्युम्नो ह्यनिरुद्धेति मूर्तिधृक्।
Inspired by the energy Shri, Vishnu divided himself four-fold. He assumed four forms (the three additional ones) named Sankarshana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha. (That is He retained one imperceptible form of himself and assumed three others forms which were respectively conjoined with the three shaktis. And thus he became perceptible.)
तमःशक्त्यान्वितो विष्णुर्देवः संकर्षणाभिधः॥२८॥
प्रद्युम्नो रजसा शक्त्यानिरुद्धः सत्त्वया युतः।
Lord Vishnu, accompanied by the power Tamas, became Sankarshana. He became Pradyumna accompanied by Rajas and Aniruddha accompanied by Sattva.
महा(न्)संकर्षणाज्जातः प्रद्युम्नो यदहंकृतिः॥२९॥
अनिरुद्धात्स्वयं जातो व्रह्माहंकारमूर्तिधृक्।
Mahattattva emerged from Sankarshana. Ahamkara emerged from Pradyumna. From Aniruddha emerged the form of Brahmahamkara.
सर्वेषु सर्वशक्तिश्च स्वशक्त्यधिकया युतः॥३०॥
All energies are present in all forms but each form is dominated by its own power.
अहंकारस्त्रिधा भूत्वा सर्वमेतदविस्तरत्। सात्त्विको राजसश्चैव तामसश्चेत्यहंकृतिः॥३१॥
Ahamkara divided itself three-fold and permeated everything. Saatvika, Rajasik and Taamasik – these were the three divisions of Ahamkara.
देवा वैकारिकाज्जातास्तैजसादिंद्रियाणि च। तामसाच्चैव भूतानि खादीनि स्वस्वशक्तिभिः॥३२॥
The gods emerged from Vikara (sattva), the sense organs emerged from Tejas (Rajas) and the five elements sky etc emerged from Tamas together with their own powers.
श्रीशक्त्या सहितो विष्णुः सदा पाति जगत्त्रयं।
भूशक्त्या सृजते विष्णुर्नीलशक्त्या च हन्ति हि॥३३॥
Vishnu, accompanied with the power Shri, always protects the world; accompanied by the power Bhoo he creates and accompanied by the power Nila he destroys.
सर्वेषु चैव जीवेषु परमात्मा विराजते। सर्वं हि यदिदं ब्रह्म(न्) स्थितं हि परमात्मनि॥३४॥
The Supreme Soul resides in all the beings. O Brahmin! Whatever exists is situated in the Supreme Soul.
सर्वेषु चैव जीवेषु स्थितं ह्यंशद्वयं क्वचित्। जीवांशमधिकं तद्वत्परमात्मांशकोऽधिकः॥३५॥
The two parts (jiva and paramatma) are situated in all beings. In some the jiva part dominates and similarly in some the paramatma part dominates.
सूर्यादयो ग्रहाः सर्वे ब्रह्माकामद्विषादयः। एते चान्ये च बहवः परमात्मांशकाधिकाः॥३६॥
All the planets like Sun etc and gods like Brahma, Shiva etc – these and many others are dominated by the paramatma part.
शक्तयश्च तथैतेषामधिकांशाः श्रियादयः। अन्यासु स्वस्वशक्तीषु ज्ञेया जीवांशकाधिकाः॥३७॥
And their powers or consorts like Lakshmi etc are also dominated by paramatma part. In the powers or consorts of other (gods) the jiva part should be known to be dominant.
इति श्रुत्वा द्विजवरः सुजन्मा प्रश्नकोविदः। किंचित्संदेहमापन्नः पुनः प्रोवाच तं मुनिं॥३८॥
Shiva said: Hearing this, Sujanma, the best amongst dwijas and adept in asking questions, succumbed to a doubt and spoke again to that sage.
रामकृष्णादयो ये च ह्यवतारा रमापतेः। तेषु(तेऽपि?) जीवांशसंयुक्ताः किं वा ब्रूहि मुनीश्वर॥३९॥
Vipra said: Were the incarnations of Vishnnu like Rama, Krishna etc also constituted of the Jiva part? O lord of sages! Tell this to me.
रामः कृष्णश्च भो विप्र नृसिंहः शूकरस्तथा। एते पूर्णावताराश्च ह्यन्ये जीवांशकान्विताः॥४०॥
The sage said: O Vipra! Rama, Krishna, Nrisimha and Shukara – these were purnavataras (that is contained only the paramatma part). Others were accompanied by the jiva part.
अवताराण्यनेकानि ह्यजस्य परमात्मनः। जीवानां कर्मफलदो ग्रहरूपी जनार्दनः॥४१॥
The unborn Supreme Soul has many avataras. Janardana (an epithet of Vishnu meaning exciting or agitating men) in the form of planets grants the fruits of karma to the beings.
दैत्यानां बलनाशाय देवानां बलवृद्धये। धर्मसंस्थापनार्थाय ग्रहाज्जाता इमे क्रमात्॥४२॥
रामावतारः सूर्यस्य चंद्रस्य यदुनायकः। नृसिंहो भूमिपुत्रस्य बुद्धः सोमसुतस्य च॥४३॥
वामनो विबुधेड्यस्य भार्गवो भार्गवस्य च। कूर्मो भास्करपुत्रस्य सैंहिकेयस्य शूकरः॥४४॥
केतोर्मीनावतारश्च ये चान्ये तेऽपि खेटजाः।
These incarnations of Vishnu were born from the planets in sequence for the sake of destroying the power of demons, for enhancing the power of gods and for establishing righteousness. Rama was an avatara of Sun, Krishna of Moon, Nrisimha of Mars, Buddha of Mercury, Vamana of Jupiter, Parashurama of Venus, Kurma of Saturn, Shukara of Rahu and Meena of Ketu. The remaining avataras were also born from the planets.
परमात्मांशमधिकं येषु ते खेचराभिधः॥४५॥
जीवांशमधिकं येषु जीवास्ते वै प्रकीर्तिताः।
The avataras which have a predominance of the paramatma part are called Khecharas (that is gods, literally meaning moving in the sky) and those which have a predominance of the jiva part are called Jivas.
सूर्यादिभ्यो ग्रहेभ्यश्च परमात्मांशनिःसृताः॥४६॥
रामकृष्णादयः सर्वे ह्यवतारा भवंति वै। तत्रैव ते विलीयंते पुनः कार्योत्तरे सदा॥४७॥
जीवांशा निःसृतास्तेषां तेभ्यो जाता नरादयः। तेऽपि तत्रैव लीयंते तेऽव्यक्ते समयंति हि॥४८॥
From the planets Sun etc the paramatma part emerges and the avataras like Rama, Krishna etc come into existence. After their work is over they always merge there itself (in the respective planets from where they emerged). The jiva parts of the planets emerge and human beings etc come into existence. They also merge there itself (in the respective planets from where they emerged). And they (the planets) merge into the Avyakta (the unmanifest).
इदं यत्कथितं विप्र सर्वं यस्मिन्भवंति च। भूतान्यपि भविष्यंति तज्ज्ञः सर्वज्ञतामियात्॥४९॥
O Vipra! I have said to you that in which everything is, was and shall be. The one who knows this shall acquire omniscience.
विना तज्ज्योतिषं नान्यो ज्ञातुं शक्यति कर्हिचित्। तस्मादवश्यमध्येयं ब्राह्मणैश्च विशेषतः॥५०॥
Without knowing this, one cannot know Jyotisha in any way. Therefore it must be read, especially by Brahmins.
यो द्विजः शास्त्रमज्ञात्वा ज्योतिषं खलु निंदति। रौरवं निरयं भुक्त्वा चांधत्वमन्यजन्मनि॥५१॥
The dwija who does not know the science of Jyotisha and blames it, he suffers in the hell names Raurava and is born blind in another birth.
इत्युपदिश्य भगवांल्लोमशो द्रुहिणात्मजः। आदौ तु जातकं सम्यक्प्रवक्तुमुपचक्रमे॥५२॥
Shiva said: Having instructed in this way in the beginning, lord Lomasha, the son of Brahma, commenced to speak the Jataka formally.
॥इति श्रीलोमशसंहितायां षष्ठिसाहस्रायां श्रीशिवपार्वतीसंवादे प्रथमोत्थाने पंचमोऽध्यायः॥५॥
||Thus ends the fifth chapter in the conversation between Shiva and Parvati in the first part of Lomasha Samhita of sixty thousand verses.||