M.M.MISTRY  B Arch [m s u],   Former, Chief [Planning & Design] BMTPC, New Delhi, 110 011

302, Tanishq, 9-12 Haribhakti Extn. O P Road. Baroda. 390 007. [r] 2313402, [m] 93 2772 6594

Earlier articles have narrated types of defects called Vedha and its interpretations used by the Shilpacharyas of various treatises. They have coined the one word terms –Terminology which it explains the meaning of defect may occur in design and construction of buildings. Sanskrit words are self explanatory. This article is intended to offer analysis of exceptional rules advocated by our ancient scholars. These rules are on the basis of diurnal sun movements and wind directions during various seasons of the year.

Forty one types of Vedha Dosh and ten exceptional rules to qualify as good for  a house or a building. These are recapitulated as under.

  1. The distance of twice the height being left from door or building to the Vedha, there occurs no Vedha Dosh.
  2. The Vedha falls in diagonal line of house or a building creates no Dosh.
  • The building and the Vedha is separated by road or compound wall or any other wall or fort or castle, it forms no Vedha Dosh.
  1. The Vedha if not visible from the house or building has no Dosh.
  2. The Vedha happens to be across the river, it does not form part of a Dosh.
  3. The Vedha is not applicable to lower caste.
  • Dilapidated temple or ancient building or restored house causes no Vedha Dosh.
  • Silpa Acharya Garga Muni has said ‘Mind and eyes feel satisfied at a first glance, such Vastu are always innocent’
  1. Building devoid of Vastu doctrines, but increases positive feelings in mind and liked by eyes, it is free from Vastu Dosh.
  2. Sukracharya has observed that Scholars do not appreciate the buildings which do not conform to Shastriya dimensions. But few scholars feel ‘What so ever house may be if it is captivating and satisfying, Vastu Dosh should be ignored.’

Rule nos Viii, IX and X are based on aesthetic aspects.  Rule no I, is inter- linked with ii which covers height and orientation of building. Rule no iii & iv deals barriers and rule no v relates to the human eye field of vision. Rule no vi and vii are related to caste and fractured and repaired old buildings.

Rule no i and ii reveals the insight of our Shilpa Acharyas on solar azimuth and altitude at different hours of the day. They have determined the distance between building and Vedha as two heights. To prove the point, examine following table.



SUN                       JUNE                      MARCH                  DEC

Hours                     AZ      AL                AZ      AL                AZ      AL

Rise    Set                64˚     0˚                90˚     0˚                116˚    0˚

O6     18                 68      9                  –         –                   –         –

07      17                 73      22                96      14                 117      04

08      16                 77      35                103     27                124     15

09      15                 80      49                111      41                 134     26

10       14                 83      62                124     53                146     35

11       13                 85      76                146     63                162     41

12 noon                  00      9                  180     67                180     44


Altitude of sun and height of object or building is known, the distance can be worked out trigonometrically. Tan ɸ = H / D [opposite side divided by base]

Hindus consider 60 Ghatis as day length from sunrise to next sunrise, is divided by eight called eight Prahars starting from local sunrise. Prahar duration is 7 Ghati 30 pala =approximately 3 hours. 

Normally, at 9 am and 3 pm sun altitude varies from 44˚ to 35˚ for stations falling between 8 to 35 degrees latitudes for the month of March. On December 22nd at 9 and 15 hours of morning and evening, before 2nd and after 3rd izgj Prahar, altitude 27˚ angle tan ɸ value is twice the height. Thus, statement made by ancients hold good. [e.g. D=2H]

chart 124

This can also be used to assess the shadow of building or object casting in a well after 2nd and 3rd Prahar of the day. In other words, well should be equal distance to the height of the building or object.

Housing for king, minister, chief of army and four castes are specified in width to length Ratios such as length is 1/10, 1/8, 1/6 and ¼ more than width dimensions. These ratios have tan ɸ value of 42˚-18’; 41˚-36’; 40˚-36’ and 38˚-36’ for Brahmins, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Sudras having orientation in north, east, south and west direction respectively. However, door direction for Sudras is west facing, Brahmins- north, Kshatriyas- east and Vaishyas should have door facing to south. Plots in east direction controlling fiery signs should have four numbers of doors facing S, W, N& E; south-earthy signs should have no doors on west wall; west-airy signs should have only one door on eastern face wall and in north- watery signs should blank walls on north and west directions.

It is of interest to note the building dimensions are base on azimuth of sun angle within the range of June to December month at local mean time at 0900 hours.

[Refer: figure below] Some one may question Ganghinagar capitol town of Gujarat did not existed when Vastu Shastra were written. This Latitude is very near to tropic of cancer and obliquity of ecliptic angle has prompted for selection.

chart 125

These are some of the very simple examples. Vedic culture has highly developed knowledge base in Astronomy, Astrology, Physics, and Mathematics. Together with Arabs and the Chinese the oriental knowledge base has been supreme, even without the modern instrumentation of the contemporary science.

Vedha situated in diagonal line of building or plot, does not obstructs the sun light penetration at sun rise to 2nd Prahar. The azimuth of sun has been deciding factor for size of plots as well as non Vedhable location of the object.

Walls or barriers creates hindrance and restricts ingress of energy in the building so these are Vedha. It appears the Vedic scholars have considered road, a distance   wall or river are non obstructive, do not create Vedha Dosh.

Human vision has 60˚ solid angle and vision length 6×6 means 6 meter is normal clear vision. Thus, any Vedha beyond the orb of 6 meter- 20 feet or 13 Hasta 6 Angula, is ineffective.

Old or dilapidated, fractured or reconstructed or renovated temple or buildings or structure have no further renewable, reflectivity or refractivity of energy. Therefore, it appears ancients have considered as innocent Vastu. It may be noted that the broken, fractured or damaged icons of God are not worshiped as they have lost their energies/ power.

Minimum width of building is 16 hands =4.8 m particularly for Sudra. Buildings having width less than 4.8 m Vastu/ Vedha Dosh is not operative. Considering contemporary scenario in housing field, low cost housing schemes have plot/building width does not exceed the stipulations recorded in Vishwakarma Prakash. 

Every human being has perceptibility to judge positive and negative energies  aspects within the orbit of  Vastu principles. Aesthetics is debatable, to overcome such situations if individual inner mind appreciate the work, has no relevance of Dosh.

Perhaps, readers would be more inquisitive to know the influence of Vedha Dosh on the occupants. Sages have not advanced any reasons for the effects. The effects of Dosh relate to owner of the property or some times to aged or children; elders or younger; son or daughter; male or female relations who happens to be the occupants of the house/property. The gravity of influence depends on combination of both man made and natural defects particularly plot and structure. House does not remain the home. Efforts are made to compile the results of Vedha related to subject from various text books.

Influence of Vedha Dosh- Defects on the occupants

Nature of defects                         Influence

01       Plot width too wide                     Separation from spouse

02      Plot width too narrows                Poverty

03      Plot level high/ low                      Separation from son

04      Plot/building Diagonals uneven     Losses due to food poison

05      Court yard not right angle            Defective eye sight

06      Surround ground low/ high          Loss of progeny

07      House without verandah              Destruction of children

08      House with more corners             Food poisoning

09      Built-up are in Brahmsthan           Progeny denied

10       Fire/ water in Brahmsthan            Blindness

11       Low foundation height                 Incurable disease

12       Plinth level different                     Loss of fame

13       Plinth height too high/low            Losses, no gains

14       Side or rear Common wall            Troubles to brother

15       Wall inside or outside tilt             Decrease in wealth

16       Compound wall high/low             Theft fear

17       Grilles in compound wall              Loss of wealth

18       Lattice, small windows                 Loss of status

19       Window size small/big                 Fame disturbed

20      Base of column/ pillar up/down    Loss of grand children

21       Column height low                      End of family

22      Columns/ Pillars no’s less/more     Destruction in Family

23      Loft height too less or more          Mental worries/agony

24      Entablature high/ low / flat           Destruction to owner

25      Main door in middle of Vastu       Longevity of owner in danger

26      Tree in front in front of door        Doubtful character of children

27      Road/entrance on main door       Contagious disease

28      Mud in front of door / gate          Restlessness

29      Water in front of main door         Losses

30      Well in front of door/ gate           Sudden illness / Fits

31       Temple in front of house              Destruction to owner

32      Pillar in front of door                   Doubtful reputation of females.

33      Doors in mid pada of wall            Losses to occupants.

34      Opposite door too high               Troubles to occupants

35      Door in front of door                  Enmity with brother

36      Deformed shape of door              Troubles

37      Door self open                            Worries in mind

38      Door self close                             Loss of heritance

39      Door size large                            Fear from king

40      Door size small                            Danger from thief

41       Door tilting out side                     Traveling

42      Door/window frame thick/thin     Stomach ache

43      Beam/ Truss over mid of door      Depression

44      Door-head thin/thick                    Various ailments

45      Shadow on building                     Unhappiness

46      Shadow in well                            Debtor

47      Building height more                    Enmity in family

48      Building height less                       Deceases

49      Domes /roofs unequal size            Brain problems-Tumors

50      Roof height/slope more                Family /dynasty vanishes

51       Roof height/slope less                  Short life span

52      Variable stairs risers/treads size      Paralysis

53      Uneven courses of wall                Unstable mind

54      Masonry/ashlars joints thick          Instability

Architectural or constructional defects occurring in structure are some times not acceptable to eyes. Workmanship defects like uneven plaster, flooring, minor defects or uneven sizes of elements and components or plumbing heights and installations are occasionally tolerated by the users. Major defects listed by the ancients can prevail in the building and are relevant in present day also with in-situ concrete or pre- cast concrete or factory made components and elements.

Defects such as lack of precision in workmanship of joinery or joints may lead to weakness to physical structure. Rishimunis knew the nature of defects. In order to avoid such defects-Vedha Dosh in building, the Shastra merely inform us what kind of consequences may follow in life of occupants. It appears, during Vedic period, penalty imposed by Seers is narrating adverse influence of psychological nature rather than physical or monitorial. Creation of fear phobia is more effective on the owner and designers. No need to panic to self or others after reading this. Put it on hammer test and convey your feed back to the editor for furtherance of knowledge. This will be service to the VASTULOGY.

[Vedic: Vastu Vedha Dosh-1, 2, 3 may be treated as “Code of Practice for Building Construction.”]


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